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Today in Health & Wellness
HEALTH CONDITIONS

Kidney Stones

Overview
Symptoms
Risk Factors
Commonly Prescribed Drugs
Treatment and Management
Doctors to Consult
Overview

Common Name:

Bato sa bato (Fil.)

Kidney stones are solid masses that crystallize from the accumulation of substances in the kidneys. Kidney stones are formed in the kidney but stones can actually be found in any part of the urinary tract. The stones or renal calculi are either made out of calcium oxalate, phosphate or maleate though some stones may contain uric acid, struvite and cystine. Small stones usually do not present any symptoms but large stones cause pain in the region between the hips and ribs.

Anyone may develop kidney stones but it is more likely to occur in men than in women and adults aged 20 to 40 years old.

Diagnosis:

  • X-ray
  • Computed tomography
Symptoms
  • Blood in urine
  • Back pain or pain the lower abdomen
  • Vomiting, nausea
  • Discolored or foul smelling urine
  • Chills, fever
  • Restlessness
  • Frequent urge to urinate
Risk Factors
  • History and family history of kidney stones
  • Dehydration
  • Obesity
  • High-protein, salt or glucose diet
  • Other medical conditions such as: inflammatory bowel disease, hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, prostate enlargement, stricture disease, chronic diarrhea, Crohn's disease
Commonly Prescribed Drugs
  • Alpha-adrenergic blockers like stamsulosin and calcium channel blockers may help stones to pass
  • NSAIDS or opioids for the pain
  • Potassium citrate to make urine alkaline and dissolve uric acid stones
  • Thiazide diuretics decrease calcium concentration in people with calcium stones and reduce possibility of formation of new stones
Treatment and Management

Surgical treatment:

  • Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
  • Ureteroscopy (URS)
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)
  • Open Surgery

Management

  • Drink plenty of fluids. At least 2 liters of water is recommended
  • Limit your intake of Vitamin C supplements since Vitamin C is converted to oxalate in the body. The daily recommended dose is 500 mg.
  • Vitamin A found in food such as carrots, broccoli, squash, and sweet potatoes helps the urinary tract maintain its overall health
  • Exercise regularly. This helps the calcium move from the bloodstream and into the bones lessening likelihood of stone formation
  • Refrain from using too much salt since this has been correlated to stone formation
  • Limit alcohol intake
  • Refrain from smoking
  • Eat a healthy diet full of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy foods
  • Surgery may be needed depending on the size of the stones. Lithotripsy or shockwave therapy maybe done if the stone does not pass through the urether to the bladder
  • Avoid food and drinks with high calcium content if you have calcium-type stones and refrain from taking antacids that are calcium-based if you have calcium stones
  • Do not consume food with high oxalate levels if you have oxalate stones. Examples of these foods include rhubarb, spinach, cocoa, pepper, nuts, and tea
Home Remedies
Doctors to Consult
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