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Today in Health & Wellness


Risk Factors
Treatment and Management
Doctors to Consult

Gastritis is a condition in which the stomach lining is irritated and inflamed. It can be acute (sudden onset and lasts for a short time) or chronic (persists for a long time).

It could also be classified based on its severity:
  • Non-erosive gastritis is usually caused by a bacterial infection that makes the stomach lining inflamed. It is less severe than erosive gastritis.
  • Erosive gastritis include inflammation and wearing away (erosion) of the stomach lining. This could lead to stomach deep sores, ulcers and bleeding.
Although most patients with gastritis are usually asymptomatic, symptoms that may occur are:
  • Upper abdominal discomfort or pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Indigestion
  • Bloating
  • Belching
  • Flatulence
  • Loss of appetite
Risk Factors
  • Bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that lives in the stomach and intestines. It causes inflammation of the stomach lining. Bacterial infection could lead to the development of several diseases like gastritis, ulcers and even stomach cancer.
  • Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (an enzyme responsible for maintaining normal lining of the stomach), weakening its resistance to acid, resulting to gastritis, ulcers, bleeding and perforation.
  • Common irritants on the stomach lining include excessive consumption of alcohol or cocaine, caffeine, spicy food and smoking. These increase the gastric acid secretion, making the stomach lining inflamed.
  • Stress and anxiety trigger gastric acid secretion.
  • Bile reflux (duodenogastric reflux). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver and secreted in the small intestines that aids in the digestion of fats and in the elimination of certain toxins in the body. Bile reflux happens when the bile secreted from the small intestines rise into the stomach and esophagus. This could cause digestive distress and damage to the lining of stomach and esophagus.
Commonly Prescribed Drugs
Treatment and Management
Treatment includes reduction of digestive acid to relieve symptoms and promote healing of the stomach lining.
  • Antacids neutralize digestive acids.
  • Histamine 2 (H2) antagonists reduce acid production.
  • Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) decrease acid production more effectively than histamine 2 antagonists.
  • Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and clarithromycin are used in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Therapy consists of 10 to 14 days of 2 antibiotics with a proton-pump inhibitor.


  • Stop taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat pain. Switch to other pain relievers not classified under NSAIDs instead.
  • Avoid foods (spicy, fried or acidic) and beverages (alcoholic or caffeinated) that will irritate the stomach.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Manage stress.
Home Remedies
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