Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the nasal sinus or sinuses.
The sinuses are air-filled spaces around the forehead (frontal sinuses), the cheeks (maxillary sinuses), behind the bridge of the nose and between the eyes (ethmoid sinuses) and in the upper region of the nose behind the eyes (sphenoid sinuses) that are lined with mucous membranes and connected to the nasal cavity.
Sinusitis can be acute (lasting anywhere from 2 to 8 weeks) or chronic, with symptoms lingering much longer.
Commonly Prescribed Drugs
Antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). They are used to fight the bacteria that causes the inflammation. However, they will not be effective against viruses. Adverse effects of amoxicillin are lethargy, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, anemia, hyperkalemia; while cotrimoxazole causes headache, insomnia, fatigue, abdominal pain and cough.
Decongestants (e.g., phenylpropanolamine or PPA and phenylephrine) They stimulate a-adrenergic receptors of vascular smooth muscle thus producing vasoconstriction, pressor effects, and nasal decongestion.
May cause palpitation, arrhythmias, transient hypertension, restlessness, headaches, nausea and vomiting
Pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine are contraindicated in the nursing mothers for higher risks of sympathomimetic effects to infants.
They are usually combined with an analgesic to alleviate facial pains and headaches.
Antihistamines are not always recommended for sinusitis except for allergic rhinosinusitis. Side effects are drowsiness, dryness of mouth, nose or throat.